Tag: November 29, 2011

Misshandlung ist AUCH weiblich – 100 Studien lügen nicht

Gepostet am

Ich bin es Leid, immer wieder aus feministischem Munde zu hören, dass Gewalt und Misshandlung „männlich“ seien um nicht zuletzt das eigene Konstrukt der unfehlbaren, reinen „Frau“ aufrecht erhalten zu können. Dabei wird (absichtlich?) auf alle Opfer weiblicher Gewalt, weiblicher Misshandlung – auch sexueller! – vergessen.

Das Leid von misshandelten Jungen und Mädchen, Ehemännern und generell Partnern aber auch gleichgeschlechtlicher Partnerinnen wird verleugnet und die Artikulation eines solchen versucht mit allem sprachlichen Nachdruck öffentlich wirksam zu verhindern. Schon allein deswegen sehe ich es als meine Pflicht an – wie es vor mir schon viele Wissenschafter und auch Männerrechtler wie Arne Hoffmann getan haben – folgende 100 Studien anzuführen in und durch welche mit dem feministischen Dogma der „reinen“, der „besseren“ Frau gehörig aufgeräumt wird.

Zu den Studien werden Webseiten genannt. Darin können weiterführende Verlinkungen zu Dutzenden wenn nicht Hunderten Studien gefunden und abgerufen werden.

Euch wird auffallen, dass in allen Ländern, in welchen die feministische Deutungshoheit ungebrochen und die wissenschaftliche Forschungsfreiheit zumindest indirekt eingeschränkt ist – wie in Deutschland -, nur wenige Studien vorliegen.

Ich fordere, dass sich dies in Zukunft ändert!

1.) Martin Fiebert: References examining assaults by women on their spouses or male partners: An annotated bibliogroaphy 2011.

SUMMARY: This bibliography examines 282 scholarly investigations: 218 empirical studies and 64 reviews and/or analyses, which demonstrate that women are as physically aggressive, or more aggressive, than men in their relationships with their spouses or male partners. The aggregate sample size in the reviewed studies exceeds 369,800.

2.) Christos Tsopelasa, Tsetsou Spyridoulaa, Douzenis Athanasios: Review on female sexual offenders: Findings about profile and personality, in: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry Volume 34, Issue 2, 2011, 122-126.

A unanimous view of what is female sexual abuse is difficult to reach. Often it is under reported, unrecognized or considered ethically more acceptable than male abuse. It is also connected with an increased self-report of history of sexual abuse of the perpetrators. A typology of female sexual abusers should be developed. Treatments focusing on different psychological interventions along with prevention and public awareness can be a powerful tool in reduction of sexual abuse perpetrated by females.

3.) A. A. Randle & C. A. Graham: A review of the evidence on the effects of intimate partner violence on men, in: Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 12, (2) 2011, 96-111.

This review examines the empirical evidence on the effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) in men. The main theoretical frameworks used in this area are outlined, and methodological issues are discussed. Studies examining posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, depression, and suicidal ideation in men who have experienced IPV are reviewed.

4.) S. Moxon: Beyond staged retreat behind virtual ‚gender paradigm‘ barricades: the rise and fall of the misrepresentation of partner-violence, and its eclipse by an understanding of mate-guarding, in: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 3 2011, 45-56.

The notion of partner-violence as a male-perpetrated phenomenon is not a scientific position but an amelioration of cognitive-dissonance within a political mindset. Against all the data, this ‘gender paradigm’ persists as a series of staged retreats as new research debunks each in turn. Supposed highly sex-differential injury rates, male unilaterality of perpetration, female self-defence, male ‘control’, and female especial fear are all discredited as reasons to focus solely on men’s aggression.

5.) Miriam Wijkman, Catrien Bijleveld & Jan Hendriks: Female sex offenders: Specialists, generalists and once-only offenders, in: Journal of Sexual Aggression, Volume 17, Issue 1 2011, 34-45.

This study examines the criminal careers of all female sex offenders prosecuted by the criminal justice authorities in the Netherlands in the period 1994–2005. A latent class analysis shows that three subgroups of women can be distinguished: once-only offenders (who commit just one sex offence and no other offence), generalists (who combine sex offending with relatively many serious other, often violent, offences) and specialists (who commit relatively many sex offences next to some minor offences).

6.) Tanyaradzwa M. Kajese, Linh T. Nguyen, Giao Q. Pham, Van K. Pham, Katherine Melhorn, K. James Kallail: Characteristics of child abuse homicides in the state of Kansas from 1994 to 2007, in: Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 35, Issue 2 2011, 147-154.

The largest percentage of victims was of single mothers (40.6%), with no prior history of child abuse (60%).

7.) Einat Peled: Abused women who abuse their children: A critical review of the literature, in: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 16, Issue 4 2011, 325-330.

This article critically reviews current knowledge on abused women who abuse their children.

8.) R. Carmo, A. Grams, T. Magalhaes: Men as victims of intimate partner violence, in: Journal of forensic and legal medicine, 18(8) 2011, 355-359.

The reported cases of intimate partner violence against men represent 11.5% of the total of these cases observed in the medico-legal services of Porto. This number may be bigger because men tend to underreport and hide this kind of victimization, and also because injuries usually are mild (women perpetrate psychological abuse and minor acts of physical violence).

9.) Theresa Porter: Hit like a Girl: Women Who Batter Their Partners, 2011.

Domestic violence by women represents a blind spot for western society. Since 1977, multiple large scale international studies have demonstrated the women can and do beat, batter and murder their male and female intimate partners at a rate equal to or higher than that of man, yet this issue is not simply ignored but denied by society at large.

10.) Catherine P. Cross & Anne Campbell: Women’s aggression, in: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 16, Issue 5 2011, 390-398.

Women’s aggression is higher towards intimate partners than towards other targets.

11.) D. A. Hines & E. M. Douglas: Intimate terrorism by women towards men: does it exist?, in: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 2, (3) 2010, 36-56.

This study investigates Johnson’s theory as it applies to a sample of 302 men who sustained IPV from their female partners and sought help, and a comparison sample of community men. Results showed that the male helpseekers sample was comprised of victims of IT and that violence by the male victims was part of a pattern of what Johnson labels violent resistance.

12.) R. L. Davis: Domestic Violence-related deaths, in: Journal of Aggression, Conflict, and Peace Research, 2 (2) 2010, 44-52.

When domestic violence-related suicides are combined with domestic violence homicides, the total numbers of domestic violence-related deaths are higher for males than females.

13.) J. Langhinrichsen-Rohling: Controversies involving gender and intimate partner violence in the United States, in:  Sex Roles, 62 2010, 179-193.

Reviewed evidence support three central theses that: 1) there are subtypes of IPV; 2) women are as involved as men with some but not all subtypes of IPV, and 3) recognition of these gender-related challenges will improve policy, treatment, and working models of IPV.

14.) Theresa Porter: Woman as Molester; Implications for Society 2009.

Female sex offenders of children represent a blind spot of western society. Research over the last 20 years has noted that women can and do sexually abuse children at alarmingly high rates, yet the issue is largely ignored by the media and society at large. This paper will examine the prevalence of sex offending by women against children and then explore the culturally important myths involved in perpetuating the idea that women are sexually safe around children.

15.) Donald G. Dutton, Kenneth N. Corvo, John Hamel: The gender paradigm in domestic violence research and practice part II: The information website of the American Bar Association, in: Aggression and Violent Behavior 14 (2009) 30–38.

Without restating the entire argument, the notion that domestic violence is solely motivated by male domination of women has been rejected on several grounds, including huge and representative data sets showing female IPV to be more commonplace than male perpetrated IPV (Archer, 2000; Stets & Straus, 1989; Whittaker et al., 2007), to generate only moderately more injuries (Whittaker et al., 2007), and to be generated by the same motives (Fiebert, 2004; Follingstad, Wright, Lloyd, & Sebastian, 1991).

16.) Peter Tracey: Exploring Taboos: Comparing Male and Female Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse, in: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7 2009, 1111 – 1128.

The author concludes that more research into female-perpetrated child sexual abuse is necessary to better understand these differences. Results should be interpreted cautiously, as analyses were based on only 37 investigations involving female perpetrators.

17.) J. Allen-Collinson: A marked man: Female perpetrated intimate partner abuse, in: International Journal of Men’s Health, 8, (1) 2009, 22-40.

This paper seeks to add to a small, but developing qualitative literature on male victims‘ accounts of intimate abuse and violence. Drawing on case study data, the article charts some of the salient themes emerging from a series of in-depth interviews and the personal diary of an abused heterosexual male victim.

18.) Rebecca Deering and David Mellor: Sentencing of male and female child sex offenders: Australian study, Psychiatry, psychology and law, 394-412, Australian Academic Press Pty. Ltd., Melbourne, Vic 2009.

Research suggests that, in line with the chivalry hypothesis of female offending, a range of mitigatory factors such as mental health problems, substance abuse, and personal experiences of abuse are brought into play when women who offend against children are brought to trial. This is reflected in sentencing comments made by judges and in the sanctions imposed on the offenders, and as a result female offenders are treated differently to male offenders. The current study investigated this in an Australian context. Seven cases of female-perpetrated child sexual abuse were identified over a 6-year period through the Austlii database. Seven cases of male-perpetrated child sex abuse matched as far as possible to these were identified. Court transcripts were then located, and sentencing comments and sanctions imposed were analysed. All offenders were sentenced to imprisonment, but in general the women were more likely than the men to receive less jail time and lower non-parole periods because their personal backgrounds or situation at the time of the offending (i.e., difficulties with intimate relationship, male dependence issues, depression, loneliness and anger) were perceived as worthy of sympathy, and they were considered as likely to be rehabilitated. Further investigations are needed to support these findings.

19.) E. M. Saewyc, D. Brown, M. Plane, M. P. Mundt, L. Zakletskaia, J. Wiegel & M. F. Fleming: Gender Differences in violence exposure among university students attending campus health clinics in the United States and Canada, in:  Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(6) 2009, 587-94.

Similar rates of men (17%) and women (16%) reported any violence in the past 6 months; women were more likely to report emotional and men to report physical violence. Of those reporting emotional violence, 45.5% women and 50% men indicated it was IPV, and 23.7% women and 20.9% men reported physical IPV.

20.) Helen Gavin: “Mummy wouldn’t do that” the perception and construction of the female child sex abuser, in: Evil, Women and the Feminine, 1-3 May 2009, Budapest, Hungary. (Unpublished)

The recognition of female perpetrators of child sex abuse is impeded by the perception of women as incapable of such acts. Why is such perception persistent in the face of information to the contrary? This research uses a social constructivist approach to examining perceptions of female sexual abusers, to try to determine the answer to why we think mummy wouldn’t do that

21.) M. A. Straus: Current controversies and prevalence concerning female offenders of intimate partner violence.  Why the overwhelming evidence of partner physical violence by women has not been perceived and is often denied, in: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 18 2009, 1-19.

The author suggests explanations for the fact that, despite a large body of high-quality evidence, gender symmetry in the perpetration of nonsexual physical abuse against a partner in a marital, cohabiting or dating relationship has not been perceived by the public or service providers.

22.) M. A. Strauss & M. J. Paschall: Corporal punishment by mothers and development of children’s cognitive ability: a longitudinal study of two nationally representative age cohorts, in: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 18 2009, 459-483.

Overall 93% of the mothers of children aged 2-4 and 58% of mothers of children aged 5-9 used CP in the two week referent periods; rates consistent with other studies.

23.) G. Amendt: I didn’t divorce my kids!: How fathers deal with family break-ups.  Campus Verlag Publishers 2008.  (In Chapter 5 author presents data from an internet survey of 3600 divorced German fathers.  Results reveal that 1/3 of men reported episodes of physical violence during the divorce process and 2/3 of these were initiated by ex-partners.)

24.) S. Strickland: Female Sex Offenders: Exploring Issues of Personality, Trauma, and Cognitive Distortions, in: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23 2008, 474-489.

A sample of 130 incarcerated females, 60 sex offenders, and 70 nonsexual offenders is used. Significant results are found in the areas of total childhood trauma and severity of sexual abuse suffered and social and sexual adequacy. No differences are found in abuse of substances, personality disorders, emotional neediness, or cognitive distortions.

25.) Theresa A. Gannon, Mariamne R. Rose: Female child sexual offenders: Towards integrating theory and practice, in: Aggression and Violent Behavior Volume 13, Issue 6, November-December 2008, Pages 442-461.

Female-perpetrated child sexual abuse is beginning to be recognized as a significant problem in Western society. Despite this, however, relatively few researchers and professionals have conducted research of direct relevance for treating previous termfemalenext term child previous termsexualnext term offenders (FCSOs).

26.) Sergio Herzog & Shaul Oreg: Chivalry and the Moderatin Effect of Ambivalent Sexism: Individual Differences in Crime Seriousness Judgments, in: Law & Society Review, Volume 42, Issue 1 2008, 45-74.

Eight hundred forty respondents from a national sample of Israeli residents evaluated the seriousness of hypothetical crime scenarios with (traditional and nontraditional) female and male offenders. As hypothesized, hostile and benevolent sexism moderate the effect of women’s “traditionality” on respondents‘ crime seriousness judgments and on the severity of sentences assigned.

27.) Peter Tracey: Speaking About the Unspeakable. Exploring the Impact of Mother-Daughter Sexual Abuse, in: Violence Against Women, Volume 16, Nr. 9 2008, 1033-1053.

By embarking on multiple interviews with eight survivors (a total of 29 interviews), this article examines the impact of maternal sexual abuse on daughters.

28.) Jenny Yourstone, Torun Lindholm Marianne Kristiansson: Women who kill: A comparison of the psychosocial background of female and male perpetrators, in: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, Volume 31, Issue 4 2008, 374-383.

Results showed that both female and male perpetrators were psychosocially encumbered already at an early age. Homicidal women had more severe childhood circumstances, but less aggressive childhood behaviour than did their male counterparts. At the time of the crime, women had a more ordered social situation, had more often been exposed to violence and searched for help than had the men. These gender differences suggest that specific actions are needed for preventing women’s homicidal behaviour.

29.) Kim Turner, Holly A. Miller, Craig E. Henderson: Latent Profile Analyses of Offense and Personality Characteristics in a Sample of Incarcerated Female Sexual Offenders, in: Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35 2008, 879-894.

This study examines characteristics of 90 female sexual offenders based on offense and personality traits.

30.) SC Swan, LJ Gambone, JE Caldwell, TP Sullivan, DL Snow: A review of research on women’s use of violence with male intimate partners, in: Violence and victims, 23(3) 2008, 301-14.

The major points of this review are as follows: (a) women’s violence usually occurs in the context of violence against them by their male partners; (b) in general, women and men perpetrate equivalent levels of physical and psychological aggression, but evidence suggests that men perpetrate sexual abuse, coercive control, and stalking more frequently than women and that women also are much more frequently injured during domestic violence incidents; (c) women and men are equally likely to initiate physical violence in relationships involving less serious „situational couple violence,“ and in relationships in which serious and very violent „intimate terrorism“ occurs, men are much more likely to be perpetrators and women victims; (d) women’s physical violence is more likely than men’s violence to be motivated by self-defense and fear, whereas men’s physical violence is more likely than women’s to be driven by control motives; (e) studies of couples in mutually violent relationships find more negative effects for women than for men; and (f) because of the many differences in behaviors and motivations between women’s and men’s violence, interventions based on male models of partner violence are likely not effective for many women.

31.) A.V. Lysova & E.M. Douglas: Intimate Partner Violence Among Male and Female Russian University Students, in: Journal of Interpersonal Violence 23 (2008), 1279-1599.

Consistent with previous research, male and female students were about equally likely to be victims and perpetrators of all violent and aggressive actions.

32.) D. M. Capaldi, H. K. Kim & J. W. Shortt: Observed initiation and reciprocity of physical aggression in young at-risk couples, in: Journal of Family Violence, 22 (2) 2007, 101-111.

The present study examined sex differences in initiation of physical aggression as observed during discussion tasks and in the likelihood of a similar response from the partner. In addition, patterns for men and women in the prevalence of aggression initiation and partner reciprocation across 4 time points spanning approximately 9 years from late adolescence through the mid-20s are examined, as well as overall associations with reported aggression and injuries. Findings indicated that the young women were more likely than the men to initiate physical aggression at late adolescence, but by the mid-20s in early adulthood there were no significant sex differences in initiation rates.

33.) M. Carney, F. Buttell & D. Dutton: Women who perpetrate intimate partner violence: A review of the literature with recommendations for treatment, in: Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12 2007, 108-115.

The purpose of this article is to review the literature on women as perpetrators of violence in their intimate relationships (i.e., domestically violent women) and summarize the scant literature on intervention programs for these women.

34.) L. Bunting: Dealing with a problem that doesn’t exist? Professional responses to female perpetrate, in: Child Abuse Review, 4 2007, 252-267.

Findings indicate female involvement in sexual offenses against children is more common than generally thought, and has serious implications for the long-term emotional and psychological well-being of victims.

35.) Daniel J. Whitaker, Tadesse Haileyesus, Monica Swahn and Linda S. Saltzman: Differences in Frequency of Violence and Reported Injury Between Relationships With Reciprocal and Nonreciprocal Intimate Partner Violence, in: American Journal of Public Health, Vol 97, No. 5 2007, 941-947.

Almost 24% of all relationships had some violence,and half (49.7%) of those were reciprocally violent. In nonreciprocallyviolent relationships, women were the perpetrators in more than70% of the cases. Reciprocity was associated with more frequentviolence among women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.3; 95% confidenceinterval [CI]=1.9, 2.8), but not men (AOR=1.26; 95% CI=0.9,1.7).

36.) J. Archer: Cross cultural differences in physical aggression between partners: A social-role analysis, in: Personality & Social Psychology Review, 10 2006, 133-153.

In developed western nations, both sexes commit acts of physical aggression against their partners. Data from 16 nations showed that this pattern did not generalize to all nations. The magnitude and direction of the sex difference was highly correlated with national-level variations in gender empowerment and individualism-collectivism. As gender equality and individualism increased, the sex difference in partner violence moved in the direction of lesserfemale victimization and greater male victimization.

37.) D. G. Dutton, D. G.: Rethinking Domestic Violence. Vancouver: UBC Press 2006.

His findings also contradict earlier views among researchers and policy makers that IPV [intimate partner violence, terminatus] is essentially perpetrated by males in all societies.

38.) R. B. Felson: Is violence against women about women or about violence?, in: Contexts, 5 2006, 21-25.

Homicide research does show that women are more likely to kill in self-defense than men, but police investigators attribute only 10 percent of homicides committed by wives to self-defense; women kill their husbands for a variety of reasons. In addition, the women who kill their husbands are not usually sweet and innocent…. A gender perspective implies that men use violence against their wives to maintain their dominance. However, the accompanying table suggests that husbands are no more controlling than wives, and are perhaps less so.

39.) R. Luthra & C. A. Gidycz: Dating violence among college men and women, in: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21 2006, 717-731.

A sample of 200 college students completes assessments concerning the occurrence of violence in their dating relationships. The incidence of self-reported partner violence is 25% for women and 10% for men.

40.) M. Tardif, N. Auclair, M. Jacob & J .Carpentier: Sexual abuse perpetrated by adult and juvenile females: An ultimate attempt to resolve a conflict associated with maternal identity, in: Child Abuse & Neglect, 29 2005, 153-167.

Since 1992, clinical and evaluative data were collected from a sample of 13 AF and 15 JF who had committed sexual abuse. The subjects were evaluated in the program for adult and adolescent sex offenders at the outpatient clinic of the Centre de Psychiatrie Légale de Montréal (affiliated with the Institut Philippe Pinel de Montréal). The data were collected by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians: psychiatrists, psychologists, criminologists and sexologists. A team of two or three clinicians who utilized a standardized interview grid evaluated each subject.

41.) J. J. Cercone, S. R. H. Beach & I. Arias: Gender Symmetry in Dating Intimate Partner Violence: Does Behavior Imply Similar Constructs?, in: Violence and Victims, 20 (2) 2005, 207-218.

Results support the view that dating IPV is generally symmetrical at a topographical level, although significantly more women than men reported perpetration of severe physical assault.

42.) M. Cui, F. Lorenz,R. D. Conger, J. N. Melby & C. M. Bryant: Observer, Self-, and partner reports of hostile behaviors in romantic relationships, in: Journal of Marriage and Family, 67 2005, 1169-1181.

(d) women showed a higher level of hostility toward their partners than did men.

43.) D. G. Dutton & T. L. Nicholls: The gender paradigm in domestic violence research and theory: the conflict of theory and data, in: Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10 2005, 680-714.

Feminist theory of intimate violence is critically reviewed in the light of data from numerous incidence studies reporting levels of violence by female perpetrators higher than those reported for males, particularly in younger age samples.

44.) D. G. Dutton, T. L. Nicholls & A. Spidel: Female perpetrators of intimate abuse, in: Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 41, (4) 2005, 1-31.

A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger “cohort” community samples followed longitudinally.

45.) Deborah S. Boroughs: Female sexual abusers of children, in: Children and Youth Services Review Volume 26, Issue 5, May 2004, 481-487.

In 1996, the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN) investigated more than two million reports alleging maltreatment of more than three million children. More than one million of these children were identified as victims of abuse. Of the one million children, 12% were sexually abused. The sexual abuse of children by women, primarily mothers, once thought to be so rare it could be ignored, constituted 25% (approximately 36 000 children) of the sexually abused victims. This statistic is thought to be underestimated due to the tendency of non-disclosure by victims. This paper examines the statistical data regarding sexual abuse by women, the psychological profiles of these women, how and why society excuses female abusers, the impact on the sexually abused children, and available treatments for the perpetrators.

46.) S. Basile: Comparison of abuse by same and opposite-gender litigants as cited in requests for abuse prevention orders, in: Journal of Family Violence, 19 2004, 59-68.

Despite widespread misconceptions that tend to minimize female abuse, examination of these court documents shows that male and female defendants, who were the subject of a complaint in domestic relation cases, while sometimes exhibiting different aggressive tendencies, measured almost equally abusive in terms of the overall level of psychological and physical aggression.“>Despite widespread misconceptions that tend to minimize female abuse, examination of these court documents shows that male and female defendants, who were the subject of a complaint in domestic relation cases, while sometimes exhibiting different aggressive tendencies, measured almost equally abusive in terms of the overall level of psychological and physical aggression.

47.) Alan Listiak: Resources and bibliography on female sexual deviance and sexually abusive/criminal behavior 2004.

48.) G. Brown: Gender as a factor in the response of the law-enforcement system to violence against partners, in: Sexuality and Culture, 8, (3-4) 2004, 3-139.

However, in at least one important respect, these policy initiatives diverge substantially from what the sociological data, which ostensibly motivates them, would indicate: they have been, to date, overwhelmingly gender specific. That is, partner abuse is routinely portrayed and acted upon as though it were almost exclusively about men abusing and victimizing innocent women and, by extension, their children–despite the overwhelming sociological evidence that a significant amount of abuse is also suffered by male partners.

49.) G. Weizmann-Henelius, V. Viemero & M. Eronen: The violent female perpetrator and her victim, in: Forensic Science International, 133(3) 2003, 197-203.

There were, however, no significant differences found between those who had experienced physical or psychological abuse in childhood or adulthood and those who had no adverse experiences. These findings suggest that the violent behaviour by females leads more often to the death of the victim, when the victim is closely related to the perpetrator. The commonly-held view that violent female offending occurs primarily as a consequence of precipitation by the victim was not supported.

50.) Rachel Simmons: Odd Girl Out: The Hidden Culture of Aggression in Girls. Fort Washington, PA: Harvest Books 2003.

When boys act out, get into fights, or become physically aggressive, we can’t avoid noticing their bad behavior. But it is easy to miss the subtle signs of aggression in girls–the dirty looks, the taunting notes, or the exclusion from the group-that send girls home crying.

51.) Myriam Denov: The myth of innocence: Sexual scripts and the recognition of child sexual abuse by female perpetrators, in: Journal of Sex Research, 40(3) 2003, 303-314.

This paper explores the prevalence of female sex offending and reveals the paradoxes that exist within the available data. Moreover, it highlights the role of traditional sexual scripts in impeding the official recognition of the problem. Traditional sexual scripts, particularly the perception of females as sexually passive, harmless, and innocent, appear not only to have influenced broader societal views concerning sexuality and sexual abuse but also to have permeated the criminal law, victim reporting practices, and professional responses to female sex offending. The implicit denial of women s potential for sexual aggression within these three domains may ultimately contribute to the underrecognition of the problem in official sources.

52.) Barbara Krahe, Eva Waizenhofer, Ingrid Moller: Women’s sexual aggression against men: Prevalence and predictors, in: Sex Roles, 49(5-6) 2003, 219-232.

In this study, we investigated the prevalence of women’s sexual aggression against men and examined predictors of sexual aggression in a sample of 248 women. Respondents reported their use of aggressive strategies (physical force, exploitation of a man’s incapacitated state, and verbal pressure) to make a man engage in sexual touch, sexual intercourse, or oral sex against his will.

53.) Myriam S Denov: To a safer place? Victims of sexual abuse by females and their disclosures to professionals, in: Child Abuse & Neglect Volume 27, Issue 1, January 2003, Pages 47-61.

Conclusion: The study highlights the need for the development and implementation of professional training initiatives to sensitize professionals to the issue of female sex offending and the intervention needs of victims. Failure to do so could have negative consequences for victims sexually abused by females.

54.) M.J. George: “The Invisible Touch”, in: Aggression and Violent Behavior, 8 (2003), 23-60

The controversy surrounding violence by female partners to intimate males has been reviewed from a diverse range of literature and disciplines. Historical and case evidence is presented against a background of the controversy surrounding the findings of studies, using the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS), which show ample evidence of assaults by women on male partners.

55.) J. Archer: Sex differences in physically aggressive acts between heterosexual partners: A meta-analytic review, in: Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7 2002, 313−351.

Women were more likely than men to throw something at the other, slap, kick, bite, or punch, and hit with an object.

56.) Corrections Service of Canada: Female sex offenders: A review of the literature, Ottawa, Canada: Author 2002.

For a variety of societal reasons, female sexual abuse is likely to remain unnoticed. Some researchers have found that the incidence of sexual contact with boys by women is much more prevalent than is contended in the clinical literature (Condy, Templer Brown & Veaco, 1987) … Many researchers consider Finkelhor and Russell’s (1984) estimates of the prevalence of female sex offending to be the most accurate to date. Their tentative evaluation is that females may account for up to 13% of the abuse of females and 24% of the abuse of males, either acting alone or with a partner.

57.) Jennifer Vick, Ruth McRoy & Bobbie M. Matthews: Young female sex offenders: Assessment and treatment issues, in: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 11(2) 2002, 1-23.

Key findings include the lack of research, tools, and literature on young female sex offenders and perceived differences between male and female offenders including history, treatment, and characteristics.

58.) Peter Anderson & Dyan Melson: From deviance to normalcy: Women as sexual aggressors, in: Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, 5 (October 23) 2002.

The traditional gender roles of young women in the United States are changing. According to research reports of the past few decades, women have taken a more commanding role in sexual relationships with men. These new roles have, at times, included behavior identified as sexual aggression.

59.) Lori B. Girshick: Woman-to-Woman Sexual Violence: Does She Call It Rape? Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press 2002.

Lori B. Girshick exposes the shocking, hidden reality of woman-to-woman sexual violence and gives voice to the abused. Drawing on a nationwide survey and in-depth interviews, Girshick explores the experiences and reflections of seventy women, documenting what happened to them, how they responded, and whether they received any help to cope with the emotional impact of their assault.

60.) Marnie C. Ferree: Females and sex addiction: Myths and diagnostic implications, in: Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 8(3-4) 2001, 287-300.

Females‘ experiences with sexually compulsive behavior rarely receive the attention directed to males who act out. Six myths concerning women and sexual addiction are offered as an explanation for this oversight. Each myth is challenged and diagnostic implications are discussed. Specific suggestions are outlined for a diagnostic instrument that will identify sexual addiction in women as well as in men.

61.) Myriam S. Denov: A culture of denial: Exploring professional perspectives on female sex offending, in: Canadian Journal of Criminology, 43(3) 2001, 303-329.

Nonetheless, more recent studies, particularly in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, have begun to acknowledge the existence of female sexual offenders (Cooper, Swaminath, Baxter, and Poulin 1990; Davin, Hislop, and Dunbar 1999; Failer 1987; Mathews, Mathews, and Speltz 1989; Fromuth and Conn 1997; Saradjian 1996). The research, which has included a wide range of data-gathering techniques including large-scale self-report surveys, in-depth interviews, and case-file analyses, has all pointed to the existence of female sexual offending.

62.) Janet I. Warren & Julia Hislop: Female sex offenders: A typological and etiological overview, in: Robert R. Hazelwood & Ann Wolbert Burgess (eds.), Practical Aspects of Rape Investigation: A Multidisciplinary Approach, 3rd edition, pp. 421-434. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press 2001.

While these sexual stereotypes are factually true and thus correct in terms of generalized societal concerns, they also serve to camouflage the sexual exploitation and violence perpetrated by women against male and female children and, in some instances, against adults of both genders.

63.) D. M. Capaldi & L. D. Owen: Physical aggression in a community sample of at-risk young couples: Gender comparisons for high frequency, injury, and fear, in: Journal of Family Psychology, 15 (3) 2001, 425-440.

It was hypothesized that frequent physical aggression toward a partner, in the range of shelter samples, is largely caused by antisocial behavior and mutual couple conflict and, thus, that there would be greater similarity across genders in such behavior than has previously been supposed. It was also predicted that levels of injury and fear would be higher in women but that some men would experience these impacts. Findings indicated similarity across genders both in the prevalence of frequent aggression and in its association with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, such aggression was likely to be bidirectional in couples. Contrary to the hypothesis of the study, rates of injury and fear for the women were not significantly higher than for the men.

64.) St. T. Chermack,  M. A. Walton,  B. E. Fuller & F. C. Blow: Correlates of expressed and received violence across relationship types among men and women substance abusers, in: Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 15 2001, 140-151.

This study examined expressed and received violence among men and women in substance abuse treatment. Rates of past-year partner violence (PV) did not differ by gender, although men reported markedly higher rates of nonpartner violence (NPV).

65.) J. Archer: Sex differences in aggression between heterosexual partners: a meta-analytic review, in: Psychological Bulletin, 126(5) 2000, 651-80.

Meta-analyses of sex differences in physical aggression to heterosexual partners and in its physical consequences are reported. Women were slightly more likely (d = -.05) than men to use one or more act of physical aggression and to use such acts more frequently.

66.) K. M. Beier: Female analogies to perversion, in: Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 26(1) 2000, 79-93.

The significance of reproversion is relevant to many different specialized medical fields. This is explained in conclusion, using the examples of denied pregnancy and infanticide at birth based on initial empirical results.

67.) Jonathan Green: The last taboo. Marie Claire UK, March. [Interviews with female paedophiles in Minneapolis] 2000.

Female paedophiles are possibly society’s darkest secrets. Reviled for crimes against nature or simply ignored as though their actions are unthinkable, very little is known about them and even less done to help them. Transition Place pioneering centre for women child abusers, but it’s patients have always been too wary to give interviews. Now, for the first time, they have chosen to speak out – to Marie Claire – and discuss their lives frankly, with Jonathan Green.

68.) B. Watkins and A. Bentovim: Male children and adolescents as victims: A review of current knowledge, in: G. C. Mezey and M. B. King (eds.), Male Victims of Sexual Assault, 2nd edition, pp. 35-78. New York: Oxford University Press 2000.

The book reports on the first epidemiological study of male sexual victimization in Europe, challenges the prevailing stereotype of gay men as sexual predators, covers the topic of male rape in prisons, examines the link between early sexual victimization and later perpetration, describes how victims of sexual torture attempt to process and resolve such experiences, provides the historical and anthropological background to the subject, and examines the impact of the changes in legislation.

69.) Jacquie Hetherton: The idealization of women: its role in the minimization of child sexual abuse by females, in: Child Abuse & Neglect Volume 23, Issue 2, February 1999, Pages 161-174.

Conclusion: Individuals are urged to suspend their disbelief about female perpetrated child sexual abuse. Denial of the phenomenon may result in it continuing to be under-reported and trivialized. As this persists the price will ultimately be paid by victims of on-going abuse and survivors of past victimization whose suffering will be compounded by disparagement of the issue.

70.) Alana D. Graystona, Rayleen V. De Luca: Female perpetrators of child sexual abuse: A review of the clinical and empirical literature, in: Aggression and Violent Behavior Volume 4, Issue 1, Spring 1999, Pages 93-106

Although women have long been viewed as offenders in cases of physical child abuse, it is only recently that clinicians and researchers have begun to seriously consider the problem of female-perpetrated sexual abuse of children.

71.) J. Fedoroff, Alicja Fishell & Beverly Fedoroff: A case series of women evaluated for paraphilic sexual disorders, in: The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 8(2) 1999, 127-139.

The 12 women classified as having at least one paraphilia were similarly compared with an age-matched subsample of these men with diagnoses of paraphilia. Cases were drawn from the clinical records of a Forensic Psychiatrist who has conducted outpatient clinics for assessment and treatment of paraphilic disorders in three countries. The three most common paraphilic disorders in the female study group were: pedophilia (36%), sexual sadism (29%), and exhibitionism (29%).

72.) N.S. Coney & W. C. Mackey: The feminization of domestic violence in America: the woozle effect goes beyond Rhetoric, in: The journal of Men’s Studies 8 (1999) 45-58.

However, epidemiological surveys on the distribution of violent behavior between adult partners suggest gender parity.

73.) M. S. Fiebert,  & M. Tucci: Sexual coercion: Men victimized by women, in: Journal of Men’s Studies, 6(2) 1998, 127-133.

However, within the past decade a number of investigators (Muehlenhard & Cook, 1988; Poppen & Segal, 1988; Stets & Pirog-Good, 1989; Struckman-Johnson, 1988; Waldner-Haugrud & Magruder, 1995) have examined heterosexual dating relations and found that significant numbers of men also report being victims of sexual coercion by female partners. Several studies have provided gender comparisons in the area of sexual coercion. Muehlenhard and Cook (1988) developed a 51-item questionnaire and compared unwanted sexual activity among 507 male and 486 female college students. Results revealed that 97.5% of women and 93.5% of men experienced unwanted kissing, petting, or intercourse sometime in their lives. More men than women reported unwanted intercourse: 62.7% vs. 46.3%.

74.) Lauran E. Duncan & Linda M. Williams: Gender role socialization and male-on-male vs. female-on-male child sexual abuse, in: Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 39(9/10) 1998, 765-785.

The prevalence of sexual abuse of males by female perpetrators may be more difficult to assess than the prevalence of abuse by males, because females are more often involved in daily intimate care of children, where sexual abuse can go unnoticed (Groth, 1979; Justice & Justice, 1979; Plummer, 1981). In addition, abuse by non-caregivers may be underreported because of cultural assumptions about males—they should be able to protect themselves (Rogers & Terry, 1984); they are supposed to value sexual contact (Trivelpiece, 1990); and sexual abuse is traditionally defined as acts perpetrated against females by males (Finkelhor, 1984). Thus, estimates of the proportion of all sexual abuse perpetrated by women range widely, from 1% (Groth, 1979) to 24% (Finkelhor & Russell, 1984). In the current article, we argue that the sexual abuse of boys has long-term effects on an important arena for well-functioning heterosexual adult—intimate relationships with women.

75.) Jacquie Hethertona, Lynn Beardsall: Decisions and attitudes concerning child sexual abuse: does the gender of the perpetrator make a difference to child protection professionals?, in: Child Abuse & Neglect Volume 22, Issue 12, December 1998, Pages 1265-1283.

Conclusion: While child protection professionals considered child sexual abuse perpetrated by females to be a serious issue warranting intervention, a number of advocated decisions suggested that they did not consider female-perpetrated abuse to be as serious as male-perpetrated abuse. The implication is that victims of sexual abuse perpetrated by a woman may be less likely to receive the protection afforded victims of male-perpetrated abuse. Furthermore, professionals’ practices may be inadvertently perpetuating the view that female child sexual abuse is rare or less harmful than abuse carried out by males.

76.) Peter Anderson, & Cindy Struckman-Johnson: Sexually Aggressive Women: Current Perspectives and Controversies. New York: The Guilford Press 1998.

Working from a range of theoretical perspectives, contributors to this text challenge prevailing stereotypes of women as passive or resistant participants in heterosexual interaction and men as initiators or aggressors. Like men, the book proposes, many women are clearly interested in sex and some are sexually aggressive.

77.) L. F. O’Sullivan, E. S. Byers, L. Finkelman: A comparison of male and female college student’s experiences of sexual coercion, in: Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22(2) 1998, 177-195.

Participants were 433 randomly selected college students who responded to an anonymous survey. In line with past research, more men than women reported being sexually coercive, and more women than men reported being sexually coerced in the preceding year.

78.) L. FitzRoy: Mother/daughter rape: A challenge for feminism. In S. Cook & J. Bessant (Eds.), Women’s encounters with violence: Australian experiences (pp. 40-54). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage 1997.

I have argued that contemporary feminism has failed to believe, support, acknowledge, and appropriately respond to women who disclose their experiences of child sexual assault perpetrated by their mothers. As a consequence, such experiences are absent from feminist theorisations of sexual violence.

79.) Colin Crawford: Forbidden Femininity: Child Sexual Abuse and Female Sexuality. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing Co 1997.

This text examines the darker side of female sexuality, which has a greater tendency towards sadism, and an impulse to male domination than previously supposed. While this feminine dispassion is normally repressed, and defended against, as a social and internal psychical imperative, it does find expression under particular circumstances. The study considers accounts of female sexual fantasy, presented case studies, action research, and analyses survivors accounts of sexual abuse by women, all of which suggest a sadistic orientation in feminine sexuality. The evidence presented seeks to directly contradict social expectations of, and demands upon, „the feminine“ and the „maternal“.

80.) D. M. Busby & S. V. Compton: Patterns of sexual coercion in adult heterosexual relationships: An exploration of male victimization, in: Family Process, 36(1) 1997, 81-94.

In addition, gender differences were noted among results for different victim/offender configurations.

81.) L.K. Waldner-Haugrud, L.V. Gratch & B. Magruder: Victimization and perpetration in gay/lesbian relationships: Gender differences explored, in: Violence and Victims, 12 (1997), 173-184

General results indicate that 47.5% of lesbians and 29.7% of gays have been victimized by a same-sex partner. Further, lesbians reported an overall perpetration rate of 38% compared to 21.8% for gay men.

82.) Astrid Kalders, Helen Inkster, & Eileen Britt: Females who offend sexually against children in New Zealand, in: The Journal of Sexual Aggression, 3(1) 1997, 15-29.

The New Zealand National Police Computer Database was searched to identify all females who had been charged with sexual offences against children from 1978 to 1994 inclusive, and twenty-five females were identified who had offended sexually against children.

83.) Emanuel Peluso, Nicholas Putnam: Case Study: Sexual Abuse of Boys by Females, in: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Volume 35, Issue 1, January 1996, Pages 51-54.

The literature regarding this type of abuse is reviewed and supports the finding that such contact is relatively common and may have definite negative consequences for the victim.

84.) Margaret M. Rudin, Christine Zalewski, Jeffrey Bodmer-Turner: Characteristics of child sexual abuse victims according to perpetrator gender, in: Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 19, Issue 8 1995, 963-973.

Both lone female and lone male perpetrators abused more girls (62%, 76%, respectively) than boys. Female perpetrators were more likely to be caretakers than male perpetrators, whereas male perpetrators were more likely to be strangers than female perpetrators. Lastly, lone female perpetrators, lone male perpetrators, and male/female coperpetrators did not differ regarding severity of abuse. Thus, contrary to popular assumption, abuse by female perpetrators was not less severe than abuse by male perpetrators.

85.) Ronald B. Flowers: Female Crime, Criminals, and Cellmates: An Exploration of Female Criminality and Delinquency. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co 1995.

In the United States female crime has grown at a faster rate than male crime over the past couple of decades. Despite this, only limited research has been done by criminologists, psychologists and sociologists on this growing problem.

86.) J.W. White & R.M. Kowalski: Deconstructing the Myth of the Non-aggressive Female: a Feminist Analysis, in: Psychology of Women Quarterly 18 (1994) 477-498.

One of the most pervasive and undisputed gender stereotypes is that men are more aggressive than women. However, this stereotype has, until recently, led researchers to conclude that women are nonaggressive and, therefore, to ignore the topic of female aggression as a distinct phenomenon. The basis of the myth, factors supporting its maintenance, and theories of female aggression are examined.

87.) Gwen Adshead,  Mimi Howett,  & Fiona Mason: Women who sexually abuse children: The undiscovered country, in: Journal of Sexual Aggression, 1(1) 1994, 45-56.

The comparative rarity of female offending results in a lack of knowledge about such offenders, and the imposition of male models of offending, which may be inappropriate.

88.) K. M. Bachmann, F. Moggi & F. Stirnemann-Lewis: Mother-son incest and its long-term consequences: A neglected phenomenon in psychiatric practice, in: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182 1994, 723-725.

This case history illustrates the problem of recognizing mother–son incest in psychiatric practice, which may be due in part to gaps in the knowledge about this phenomenon.

89.) Peter Anderson: Sexual victimization: It happens to boys, too, in: Louisiana Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Journal, 57(1) 5 1993, 12.

One of the common myths about sexual victimization in our culture is that men or boys are rarely victims of sexual abuse, especially with women as the sexual aggressors (Sarrel & Masters, 1982). Supporting this myth are two other myths: 1) that women don’t or can’t victimize men due to basic differences in size and strength, 2) that women have a special relationship with children (much more bodily contact, affection, and more caregiving activities including changing diapers and other associated nonsexual activities) that precludes sexual victimization (Finkelhor, 1979).

Despite these myths there is a new body of evidence that indicates that males are at risk of sexual victimization from childhood on. In a study of male runaways (McCormack, 1986), 38% had been victims of childhood sexual abuse. In other studies, 56% of male serial rapists (Burgess, Hartman, McCausland, and Powers, 1984) and 17% of male college students had been sexually victimized (Finkelhor, 1979). In a recent study conducted at Texas A&M University significantly more men than women (62.7% vs. 46.3%) self-reported that they had engaged in heterosexual intercourse „when they did not want to…“ (Muehlenhard & Cook, 1988). Anderson and Aymami (in press) related that both women and men reported that women used tactics to achieve sexual contact with men commonly defined as sexually coercive, abusive, or violent. Relevant to this paper, 7.5% of women surveyed by Anderson and Aymami self-reported initiating sexual contact (kissing, fondling, or intercourse) with a man who was in a compromising position (i.e., being where he did not belong or breaking some rule).

90.) Adele Mayer: Women Sex Offenders: Treatment and Dynamics, Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications, Inc 1992.

91.) J. Bookwala, I. H.Frieze,  C. Smith & K. Ryan: Predictors of dating violence: A multi variate analysis, in: Violence and Victims, 7 1992, 297-311.

Of the set of predictors employed, receipt of physical violence from one’s partner emerged as the largest predictor of expressed violence for both men and women.

92.) B. Watkins & A. Bentvom: The sexual abuse of male children and adolescents: a review of current research, in: Journal of Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry, 33(10) 1992, 197-248.

93.) Christine Lawson: Clinical assessment of mother-son sexual abuse, in: Clinical Social Work Journal, Volume 19, Number 4 1991, 391-403.

This paper explores the possibility that cases of mother-son incest are underreported in the literature on child sexual abuse. Clinical cases of mother-son incest are presented and factors which may account for an underreporting of such cases are discussed. A cultural bias viewing mothers as asexual and males as sexual aggressors is suggested as the primary reason that cases of maternal sexual abuse are rarely identified or reported.

94.) Holida Wakefield & Ralph Underwager: Female child sexual abusers: A critical review of the literature, in: American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 9(4) 1991, 45-69.

However, currently there is increased interest in women as perpetrators of child sexual abuse and some researchers suggest it is more common than previously believed. But there is still considerable disagreement and confusion about just how often women sexually abuse children, what type of woman is a sexual abuser, and under what circumstances the abuse occurs.

95.) R. S. Baron, M. L. Burgess & C. F. Kao: Detecting and labeling prejudice: Do female perpetrators go undetected?, in: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17 1991, 115-123.

The present study tested the notion that gender bias against women would be less likely to be recognized if it came from an unexpected source, a female perpetrator.

96.) Irina Anderson & Victoria Swainson: Perceived motivation for rape: Gender differences in beliefs about female and male rape, in: Current Research in Social Psychology, 6(8) 1991 107-122.

Although it is difficult to obtain accurate figures for the incidence of male rape, several recent studies have attempted to measure the prevalence of sexually coercive behavior against men by both men and women, although rape of men by women that is reported to and recorded by the police is rare and as such does not feature in official rape statistics (Lees 1997; although anecdotal evidence exists that this does happen, e.g., Smith, Pine and Hawley 1988.

97.) E. V. Weldon: Women who sexually abuse children, in: British Medical Journal, 300(6738) 1990, 1527-1528.

A second insight concerns the propensity of sexual abuse to be perpetuated through mothers. A significant percentage of the patients we see-and this refers to both men and women-are themselves the victims of sexual abuse as children. Incest committed by fathers is commoner than incest committed by mothers but this condition in men is sometimes traceable to their mother’s perverting actions, which I call „perversogenic.“

98.) Toni Cavanagh Johnson: Female child perpetrators: Children who molest other children, in: Child Abuse & Neglect Volume 13, Issue 4, 1989, Pages 571-585.

Little is known about sexual perpetration by females or by young children. This paper describes the sexual perpetration behavior of 13 female child perpetrators between 4 and 13 years of age.

99.) A. Banning: Mother-son incest: Confronting a prejudice, in: Child Abuse & Neglect, 13 1989, 563-570.

This paper examines the proposition that the incidence of child sexual abuse by female perpetrators is underestimated. This may be due to a culturally based unwillingness to believe that women commit such acts. Female sexual offenders have been little studied and poorly understood.

100.) Ronald S. Krug: Adult male report of childhood sexual abuse by mothers: Case descriptions, motivations and long-term consequences, in: Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 13, Issue 1, 1989, 111-119.

Sexual abuse of male children by their mothers is rarely reported. However, it may not be as rare as commonly believed. Eight case histories are presented which exemplify mothers‘ sexual abuse of their sons to satisfy the mothers‘ own needs. In no case was the mother psychotic.